Astigmatism occurs when the front surface of your eye (cornea) is slightly irregular in shape, resulting in vision being blurred at all distances. Astigmatism is not a disease, but is actually a vision condition that is quite common.


The vascular layer of the retina that supplies blood to the photoreceptors (the cameras of the eye).


Part of the retinal photoreceptor cells, cones detect colors along two pathways: Blue and Yellow or Red and Green.


The clear tissue that covers the white part of the eye - the sclera.


The clear window at the front of the eye. Contact lenses sit on the cornea.


A deposit of protein and other material that collect in the retina.


When a person sees better at a distance than they do up close.


Part of the macula, responsible for central vision and fine focus.


Damage that is done to the retina and the optic nerve head as a result of the pressures in the eye being higher than what the eye can sustain. Higher than normal eye pressures usually accompany glaucoma but not always. Glaucoma reduces the peripheral vision and can lead to tunnel vision and complete blindness if not successfully treated.


The colored part of the eye. It is a muscle that changes the size of the pupil.


The feature of the eye that focuses light onto the retina. It can change shape slightly to focus up close.


The area of the retina surrounding the fovea. The fovea and macula make up the "reading vision" part of your retina.

Macular Degeneration

A sight-devastating disease that destroys the central vision area of the retina. There are two types of macular degeneration, wet and dry. Wet degeneration is often treated by injecting the retina. Dry degeneration is commonly treated with vitamin and nutritional supplements.

Optic Nerve

This is the “trunk cable” that is formed by all the retinal nerve fibers. The optic nerve carries information to the brain for processing.

Near Sighted

When a person sees better up close than far away.


The hole in the middle of the iris.


When the eyes lose the ability to change focus from far to near. Bifocals usually become necessary after age 40 but they are sometimes used by younger people with focusing problems.


The retina is what converts light into nerve impulses which the brain then interprets into what you see. It is like the film inside the camera. The retina has many layers.


Part of the retinal photoreceptor cells. Rods detect light / dark in black and white.


The tough outer coat of the eye, it is the white part of the eye.

SubConjunctival Hemorrhage

Blood that has leaked between the conjunctiva and the sclera. This usually looks terrible but does not normally hurt.

Vitreous Humour

The clear, jelly-like substance inside the eye that helps hold the shape of the eye helps hold the retina against the inside of the eye.